Examples EU Member States National Programmes
The key Russia’s EU bilateral partners in academic mobility programmes implementation are Germany, UK and France. As example the report highlights such European programme owners, as the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), the Humboldt Foundation, National Research Center of France (CNRS) and German Research Foundation (DFG).
German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)
The DAAD unites all higher education institutions of Germany and contributes to development of international academic relationships and scientific cooperation through academic mobility of the students and scientists. It is also one of the most active partners of the Russian Federation in academic mobility programmes.
According to the DAAD’s Annual report 2010, DAAD financed 1,288 German students and graduates coming to Russia and 3,141 Russian students and graduates coming to Germany. Under the programmes for academics, scientists, higher education lectures and administrators 472 Germans were funded to come to Russia and 759 Russians – to come to Germany. Totally DAAD financed 5,660 scholars in both directions Germany-Russia and vice versa.
In financial cooperation with or on demand of Russia-Partners DAAD supports the following activities: “Michail Lomonosov” in engineering sciences and “Immanuil Kant” in humanities in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for PhD candidates, young teachers; “Nikolaj Lobachevskij” in all subjects in cooperation with the Republic of Tatarstan for MA-courses; for BA/MA-studies (full-time) in cooperation with the Republic of Chechnya; DAAD / Open Society Foundation (OSF) Programme for PhD graduates.
Humboldt Foundation Programmes propose research fellowships and research awards for highly qualified scientists and scholars from all countries and disciplines. The research fellowships and awards allow researchers to come to Germany to work on a research project. The Foundation’s programmes support research fellowships for postdoctoral researchers (completed their doctorate fewer than 4 years ago) and for experienced researchers (completed their doctorate fewer than 12 years ago). As an intermediary organisation for German foreign cultural and educational policy the Foundation promotes international cultural dialogue and academic exchange.
The Foundation has four main programmes for the scientists specialized in all fields of research from Europe and other foreign countries. They are post-doctoral grants, grants for experienced scientists working in their own research area, grants for outstanding researchers and grants for potential leaders from Russia, China and USA. Annually the Foundation awards over 800 scholarships to experienced foreign researchers and 30 scholarships of the Federal Chancellor of Germany to potential leaders from the Russian Federation, USA and others.
In 2010 Russian researchers were awarded 27 grants. Recently a low success of Russian applicants has been observed. That might be connected with reduction of interest from the side of Russian researchers and at the same time with decreasing scientific skills of present-day researchers in Russia.
National Research Center of France (CNRS)
The CNRS, the largest fundamental research organisation in Europe, covers all scientific disciplines and carries out research in all fields of knowledge through 10 thematic institutes in such fields as mathematics, physics, information technologies, nuclear and particles physics, earth sciences and astronomy, chemistry, biology, human and social sciences, ecology and environment, engineering.
The CNRS has 85 exchange agreements with 60 countries and 5,000 foreign visiting scientists (PhD students, post-docs and visiting researchers). International cooperation and international academic mobility is regulated by 343 International Programs for Scientific Cooperation (PICS). The main mechanisms for international cooperation are international research networks, international associated laboratories, international joint units.
Several kinds of agreements for scientific cooperation are signed between CNRS and Russian research organisations (RAS, RFBR, RFH, Universities…) which cover, always within the framework of joint research projects, from basic mobility expenses to joint laboratories, also supporting the exchange of researchers, organisation of events, as well as international networking. The selection of projects is based on their Excellence and Novelty. Priority is given to projects involving young researchers. Within CNRS’ 3-year non-renewable International Programme for Scientific Cooperation (PICS) 57 ongoing collaborative relationships exist withRussia . Financial support addresses also mobility: visits, meetings, and small equipment. Another scheme, International Research Network (GDRI), brings together several laboratories from two or more countries to coordinate research on a specific topic funding. 21 Networks are functioning with Russia. Networks are used mainly for mobility, seminars and workshops. International Associated Laboratory (LIA) brings together two partner institutions which contribute human and material resources to a jointly-defined project (18 are with Russia). A virtual structure is created in which the laboratories retain their independence and legal status, as well their directors and separate locations. Two co-directors are appointed to head the LIA. The LIA is coordinated by a scientific management committee, which submits a research programme to the steering committee composed of representatives of the two institutions possibly as well as established scientists from outside the LIA. Agreement runs for 4 years, renewable once. Joint funding is available for mobility, staff assigned and small equipment. International Joint Unit (UMI) brings together researchers, engineers, and technicians from CNRS and from other country’s institutions (1 with Russia) with a location either in France or in another country staffed by personnel from both the CNRS and the partner country. UMI is headed by a Director, jointly named by CNRS and the foreign partner institution. The Director is responsible for the management of all resources made available to the laboratory.
German Research Foundation (DFG)
Germany’s scientific relations with Russia are part of a lively, centuries-old tradition. Russia is particularly significant for the German scientific system and is a priority country in the DFG’s international funding programmes. The DFG has maintained an intensive scientific dialogue with Russia for decades and, since 2003, has supported the development of bilateral cooperation through its own representative office in Moscow.
The systematic expansion of institutional collaboration with Russian partner organisations facilitates the joint promotion of cooperation in all areas of basic research. Framework agreements on the co-funding of research projects and researcher mobility exist with the following partners:Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS);Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR);Russian Foundation for the Humanities (RFH).
The DFG uses a variety of different instruments to support cooperation with its Russian partners in all their funding programmes. The close cooperative ties with Russia are impressively attested to by the approximately 400 proposals funded between 2007 and 2009 and reflect widespread participation in all the DFG’s processes. In addition to initiating German-Russian cooperation projects, the DFG funds primarily long-term, bilateral projects. It does so increasingly within the framework of coordinated programmes, like two International Research Training Groups providing early career support.
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